Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in 1935 in Akron, Ohio by Bill Wilson. In the 1930’s alcoholism was considered to be a failure of moral character and alcoholics were treated with total disdain and disrespect. Doctors gave alcoholics hallucinogens in an attempt to help them come to the realization that they needed to quit drinking. Thankfully Americans like Bill Wilson and his doctor Bob Smith saw that alcoholics are not bad people, they are sick people in need of help. Wilson created Alcoholics Anonymous which has since become a fellowship of over 2 million men and women worldwide who suffer from the effects of alcohol dependence.
Beer, wine, cocktails and distilled liquor/hard liquor are legally sold in the United States to adults over 21 years of age. Millions of people enjoy alcohol responsibly every day. However, millions more are suffering from some degree of alcohol addiction or dependence. Alcoholism is defined as drinking to excess and it includes both alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.
An adolescent that abuses alcohol often struggles the following self-destructive and dangerous behaviors:
- Repeatedly neglecting responsibilities at home, school, work and in life due to alcohol.
- Using alcohol as a way to de-stress, relax or self soothe
- Drinking despite the strain it causes on relationships
- Drinking in dangerous situation
Alcohol Tolerance in Teens
Teens who drink large amounts of alcohol regularly condition their liver such that it begins to break down alcohol more rapidly than it does in people who rarely drink. The liver does this by producing larger amounts of the enzymes which break down alcohol. Because the liver is able to adapt this way people who drink regularly find they need to drink more alcohol more often to feel the same effects. Neurotransmitter systems in the brain that are regularly exposed to large amounts of alcohol begin to adapt to its presence. Alcohol suppresses the functioning of the neurotransmitter systems. It affects the GABA system causing sleepiness and a reduction in anxiety and alertness. With long term exposure to alcohol the GABA system adapts so that the alcohol no longer triggers these effects. The teen needs to consume more alcohol to experience the same effect.
When long term usage of alcohol stops, the result is alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol withdrawal is an unpleasant set of involuntary physical responses that result from quitting drinking. These symptoms include:
- Loss of appetite
In severe cases, withdrawal from alcohol can cause seizures, agitation, confusion, hallucinations and fever. These symptoms can be dangerous and medical consultation is strongly recommended if heavy drinking is abruptly discontinued.
Alcohol’s Effects on the Body
Although alcohol affects every organ of the body, its most dramatic impact is on the liver. Alcohol is rapidly absorbed in the upper portion of the small intestine. The alcohol-laden blood then travels to the liver via the veins and capillaries of the digestive tract, which affects nearly every liver cell. The liver cells are the only cells in the body that can produce enough of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenate to oxidize alcohol at an appreciable rate. Alcohol metabolism permanently changes liver cell structure, which impairs the liver’s ability to metabolize fats. For this reason heavy drinkers tend to develop fatty livers.
The following is a list of potential complications from drinking too much alcohol:
- Cirrhosis of the liver
- Wernicke’s-Korsakoff’s syndrome
- Kidney failure
- Enlarged spleen
- Bleeding from veins in the esophagus or stomach
- High blood pressure in the liver
- Coronary heart disease
- Build up of fluid in the abdomen
- Brain disorders and coma
- Liver cancer
Adolescents are more likely to exhibit cognitive deficits including learning and memory dysfunction. Drinking during adolescence is particularly harmful due to the fact that teen bodies are in the midst of critical stages of neuro development including neuronal connectivity in different brain regions. The fact that the teenage brain is not fully developed makes an adolescent especially susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol.
Alcohol’s Effects on Relationships
Alcohol abuse can have a significant effect on family members, friends and extended family. For this reason AL-ANON was created as a spinoff of Alcoholics Anonymous. It is a support group for friends and family members of problem drinkers. AL-ANON’s basic principles include education regarding “enabling” and “co-dependency” and how to support yourself despite the actions of the alcoholic teenager.
As a parent it can be difficult to learn that your child is drinking. It may be that you have come to a gradual realization that your child is abusing alcohol. Suspicious events such as missing bottles of liquor or diminishing amounts of liquor in the home may lead you to believe something is wrong. Additional behaviors such as irritability, mood changes, missing money, secretive behaviors, forgetfulness regarding the behaviors the teen has engaged in while drinking, a change in friends, a change in activities and possible legal issues such as a DUI. These things are all red flag signals that there is a problem.
Help is Here
Admitting that there is a problem is the first step. The second step is reaching out to get help. It takes a great deal of courage and strength to ask for help in treating your child’s alcohol problem.
We offer residential, partial hospitalization and intensive outpatient program services for teens to step away from their addiction and learn new, healthier patterns of behavior. Oftentimes the addiction is far worse than the family suspects. A complete assessment of past drugs, drinking and other behaviors is the first step in the process.
All of the adolescents in our substance abuse program are introduced to AA or the “12 Step Program.” An adolescent begins their journey on step one as they admit that they are powerless over their addiction. This is a lot to ask of a teenager, but the power of the group and the impact of seeing others succeed will help the adolescent begin to address their past behaviors and future potential.
We lead youth meetings for clients to replace alcohol-fueled events with “birthdays” of sobriety and chip/token recognitions of sobriety. The teenagers at Adolescent Growth proudly display their chips and draw strength from gripping it when feeling triggered. These chips are visual symbols of the sacrifice involved in maintaining sobriety. They serve as a motivator to receive the next “30 day chip”.
We also encourage adolescents to grow spiritually. They are asked to embrace their higher power throughout the twelve step process. A serene space is provided for the adolescent to find peace free of alcohol.
Adolescents are assisted by our licensed therapists in identifying the things that trigger their desire to drink. Teens are asked to recall places and recount events wherein drinking was “expected”. For each trigger a relapse prevention plan is generated. Our compassionate staff work with the teen to realistically review the changes that will be required of them given their desire for abstinence. Teens are challenged daily with the question; “what are you willing to sacrifice to save your life?”
It is common for mental health issues to surface as the client continues to abstain from alcohol. Common co-occurring mental health issues include Depression, unresolved trauma, anger and pain. These become more prominent as alcohol is no longer there to anesthetize these issues. It is paramount that these issues are treated alongside the addiction.
Healing the Family
Living with an alcoholic is emotionally and spiritually draining. For this reason we involve family very deeply in treatment. Family members are asked to participate in family therapy one or two times per week. Families typically suffer a great deal due to the alcohol abuse and proper exploration of these feelings in a non-threatening manner is crucial. At Adolescent Growth we see families reconnect and gain trust again. We also recommend attending AL-ANON meetings to further prepare for the client’s step down out of residential treatment.
Transitioning From Treatment to the Home
The entire treatment process is spent preparing the teen for their return home. They are taught coping skills to use in place of the old drinking behavior. These skills are practiced in treatment and as the client slowly transitions back to the family through visits and extended passes. We encourage the adolescent to continue attending twelve step meetings near their home upon discharge. Our discharge planners will help the family find meetings and we recommend a “ninety meetings in ninety days” schedule.
It’s Time for a Change
An adolescent who is drinking is screaming out for help. At Adolescent Growth we have the tools to help. The drinking has to stop and we are ready to begin the healing journey with you, your teen and your family. If you are ready for your family to return to normalcy, please call one of our compassionate admissions counselors now.